This is the reduction in height and/or spread of the crown of a tree. Crown reduction may be used to reduce mechanical stress upon individual branches, or upon the whole tree, making the tree more suited to its environment. Crown reductions are specified by measurements e.g. ‘crown reduce in height by 2m and lateral spread by 1m, all round, to finished crown dimensions of 18m in height by 11m in spread (all measurements approximate.)’. Not all species are suitable for this treatment and crown reduction should not be confused with ‘topping’, an indiscriminate, harmful and unsightly treatment.